LED Full Form: Components, Benefits and How they Work

LED has replaced the traditional incandescent and fluorescent bulbs for lighting in many areas of the world. This article will cover what LED lights are, how they are created, and their benefits compared to incandescent bulbs. In this article, we will have more knowledge on light-emitting diodes (LED).

What is a LED?

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light when an electric current passes through it. LEDs are used in a wide range of applications including mobile phones, televisions, computers, signs and displays, and lighting.

History of LED

Early LEDs were often used as indicator lights on electronic devices, but they are now used in a wide range of applications due to their small size, low power consumption, and long lifespan. The first LED was invented by Henry Round in 1907. Round was working on a research project at the time that involved trying to find a way to make electrical components more visible in the dark. He discovered that when he applied a voltage to a piece of silicon carbide, it emitted a faint green light.

This discovery was not commercialized at the time and it wasn’t until 1922 that Russian scientist Oleg Vladimirovich Losev independently rediscovered the effect and published his findings. Losev’s work went largely unnoticed outside of the Soviet Union until after World War II when American physicist William Shockley became interested in the effect while working on transistor research at Bell Labs. Shockley’s team developed the first practical LED made from gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) in 1952.

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Basic Components of LED

The basic components of an LED are:

  1. A cathode: This is the negative electrode, and is made of materials like aluminum or gallium. It’s where electrons enter the LED.
  2. An anode: This is the positive electrode, and is usually made of materials like silicon or germanium. It’s where holes for electrons exit the LED.
  3. A P-type semiconductor: This is a material with extra holes for electrons. It’s sandwiched between the cathode and anode.
  4. An N-type semiconductor: This is a material with extra electrons. It’s sandwiched between the cathode and anode, on the opposite side of the P-type semiconductor.

How to Choose the Right LEDs for Your Home

When choosing LEDs for your home, it is important to consider the following factors:

  • Type of Light:

There are two main types of LEDs: warm white and cool white. Warm white LEDs emit a softer, more yellowish light, while cool white LEDs emit a brighter, whiter light. Decide which type of light you want in each room of your home and then look for LED bulbs that match.

  • Size of the Bulb:

LED bulbs come in all different shapes and sizes. Some are small enough to fit into standard light fixtures, while others are larger and require special fixtures. Be sure to measure the space where you want to put an LED bulb before buying it to make sure it will fit.

  • Wattage:

LED bulbs are available in different wattages. Higher wattage means more light, but also higher energy usage and higher electric bills. To get an idea of how much light you need in a room, consider the size of the room and the existing lighting. Then choose an LED bulb with a wattage that will provide the amount of light you want without using more energy than necessary.

  • Color Temperature:

The color temperature of a light bulb is measured in Kelvin (K). Warm white bulbs have a color temperature of around 2700K, while cool white bulbs have a color temperature of around 4100K. Choosing the right color temperature will depend on the desired look and feel of the room you’re trying to light.

  • Color Rendering Index

It measures how well a light source renders colors. A higher CRI means that colors will appear more vibrant and true to life under that light source. For example, if you are lighting a room where you’ll be doing a lot of work with fabric or other materials, you’ll want an LED with a high CRI so that colors appear accurate under

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Benefits of LED

There are many benefits of LED which make it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications. Some of the key benefits include:

  1. Energy Efficiency: LED is a very energy-efficient light source, using around 80% less energy than incandescent bulbs and around 18% less energy than fluorescent lights.
  2. Long Life: LEDs have a long operational life, with some models lasting up to 50,000 hours. This is around 20 times longer than an incandescent bulb and 8 times longer than a fluorescent light.
  3. Durability: LEDs are much more durable than traditional light sources, with no fragile filament to break and no glass components that can break or shatter.
  4. Versatility: LEDs are available in a wide range of colors and beam angles, making them suitable for a wide range of lighting applications.

How do they work?

An LED is made up of two parts: an anode and a cathode. The anode is the positive terminal and the cathode is the negative terminal. When an electric current is passed through the LED, electrons flow from the cathode to the anode, and photons are emitted as they recombine at the junction of the two materials.

The color of light emitted by an LED depends on the materials used to make the diode. For example, red LEDs are made with gallium arsenide (GaAs), while blue and green LEDs are made with indium gallium nitride (InGaN).

Problems with LEDs

As with any new technology, there are bound to be a few problems with LEDs. Some of the most common problems with LEDs include:

  • It can cause a flicker, which can be a problem for people with photosensitive epilepsy.
  • It emits blue light, which can disrupt the body’s natural sleep cycle and cause eye strain.
  • It contains harmful chemicals, such as arsenic and lead, which can leach into the environment.
  • LEDs can be dimmed, but the process is not well understood and the results are often poor.

Applications for LEDs

  • General Illumination: LEDs are increasingly being used as a replacement for traditional light sources in homes and businesses. This is because LEDs are more energy efficient and have a longer lifespan than incandescent bulbs.
  • Automotive Lighting: Many carmakers are now using LEDs for taillights, brake lights, and turn signals. This not only looks cool, but it’s also more efficient than traditional bulbs.
  • Traffic lights: LED traffic lights are becoming more common, as they’re more visible and easier to control than traditional traffic lights.
  • Flashlights: LED flashlights are popular because they’re much brighter than traditional incandescent flashlights.


The full form of LED is the “Light Emitting Diode.” This type of light bulb is becoming increasingly popular in a variety of settings because it uses less energy and lasts longer than traditional incandescent bulbs. If you are looking for an energy-efficient lighting option, LEDs are worth considering.

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